Essential knee terminology
Habitual dislocation search for term

Habitual dislocation of the patella is when the knee dislocates every time it is flexed (bent) and the patella does not re-locate until the knee is straightened again.

Haemangioma search for term

A haemangioma is a kind of blood vessel tumour formed by the overgrowth of blood vessel lining cells.

Haemarthrosis search for term

 Haemarthrosis is bleeding into a joint (haem' means blood and 'arthrosis' means joint).

Haematoma search for term

A haematoma is a collection or pooling of blood in an area of the body, creating a clotted lump.

Haemopoietic stem cells search for term

A haemopoietic stem cell is a stem cell derived from blood or bone marrow that is capable of differentiating into the various cells of the blood.

Hamstring search for term

A hamstring is one of three muscles at the back of the thigh - semitendinosus, semimembranosus or biceps femoris - which work to bend the knee. 

Hamstring graft search for term

A hamstring graft is a prepared ligament graft employing a harvested hamstring tendon.

Hamstrings search for term

The 'hamstrings' or 'hamstring muscles' are the muscles at the back of the thigh - semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris.

Page updated November 2023 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Hamstrings autograft search for term

A hamstrings autograft is when one or more hamstrings tendons are surgically removed and prepared for use as a graft elsewhere in the same person, eg reconstructing a torn anterior cruciate ligament.

Hamstrings curl search for term

The hamstrings curl with a Swiss ball helps to build up both the hamstrings and the lower back muscles.

Hamstrings exercises search for term

Hamstrings exercises strengthen the hamstrings muscles at the back of the knee.

Hamstrings graft search for term

A hamstrings graft is a ligament transplant using one of the hamstrings tendons from the back of the knee.

Hamstrings graft harvest search for term

A hamstrings graft harvest is a surgical operation to remove a hamstrings tendon from the inner aspect of the thigh, for use in a graft procedure.

Page updated February 2024 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Hamstrings harvest search for term

A hamstrings harvest is the stripping out of a hamstrings tendon for use in a graft procedure.

Hamstrings injury search for term

A hamstrings injury is an injury to the hamstrings muscles or tendons in the thigh or knee.

Hamstrings stretch search for term

A hamstrings stretch is a stretch of tight hamstrings muscles at the back of the thigh.

Harpoon search for term

A 'harpoon' in knee surgery is the term sometimes given to small bio-degradeable barbed devices which are shot through the two parts of a torn meniscus to hold the fragments together.

Hauser procedure search for term

The Hauser procedure is a surgical procedure that used to be performed for recurrent dislocation of the patella.

Page updated September 2023 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Health Professions Council search for term

The Health Professions Council (HPC) is an independent, UK-wide health regulator for thirteen different professions including physiotherapy.

Heel slides search for term

Heel slides are knee rehabilitation exercises to improve early range of motion and decrease swelling.

Heel slides (facilitated) search for term

Heel slides (facilitated) are early knee rehabilitation exercises to rebuild range of motion when the knee has been stiff after trauma or surgery.

Page updated January 2024 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Hemarthrosis search for term

Hemarthrosis is the American spelling of haemarthrosis.

Hematoma search for term

Hematoma is the American spelling of haematoma, which is an abnormal swelling of clotted blood within a muscle or tissue layer.

Hemicallotasis search for term

Hemicallotasis is a procedure where the bone (usually upper tibia) is cut through half its width and then the two parts are slowly distracted (pulled apart) using a special apparatus called an external fixator.

hESC search for term

HESC is an abbreviation for human embryonic stem cell - a stem cell derived from a human embryo.

Heterotopic ossification search for term

Heterotopic ossification is a condition where bone forms in places where it should not form, usually in soft tissue.

High tibial osteotomy search for term

High tibial osteotomy is a surgical procedure where the bone of the upper tibia is cut and re-angled to change the limb alignment.

Page updated October 2023 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Hip abduction search for term

Hip abduction is a knee rehabilitation exercise to improve range of motion of the hip and to strengthen the hip abductor muscles.

Hip adduction search for term

Hip adduction is a hip exercise that should be part of knee rehabilitation.

Hip extensions search for term

Hip extensions are hip exercises that are important in knee rehabilitation.

Hip external rotation search for term

Hip external rotation is a hip exercise relevant to knee rehabilitation.

Hip external rotation & abduction search for term

Hip external rotation and abduction are hip exercises that are relevant in knee rehabilitation.

Hip flexion & adduction search for term

Hip flexion and adduction are range of motion exercises of the hip that are relevant to knee rehabilitation.

Hip flexions search for term

Hip flexions are knee rehabilitation exercises to improve range of motion of the knee.

HIV search for term

HIV is an abbreviation of the term 'human immunodeficiency virus'.

HO search for term

HO is an abbreviation of 'heterotopic ossification', where bone forms where it should not form, usually in the soft tissues.

Hoffa fracture search for term

Hoffa fracture is a type of break in the femur bone (thighbone) the rounded condyle at the lower end, in the coronal plane and extending into the joint space.

Hoffa's disease search for term

Hoffa's disease is a disorder of the infrapatellar fat pad.

Hoffa's sign search for term

Hoffa's sign is pain and distress when straightening the bent knee while an examiner presses deeply with the thumbs on either side of the patellar tendon.

Page updated July 2023 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Hoffa's syndrome search for term

Hoffa's syndrome is pain in the front of the knee associated with irritation or scarring of the infrapatellar fat pad (Hoffa fat pad).

Hoffa's test search for term

Hoffa's test is a clinical test for a damaged or irritated infrapatellar fat pad in the area behind the patellar tendon.

Page updated November 2023 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Hopping search for term

Hopping is a common knee rehabilitation exercise, usually a one-legged hop.

Horizontal cleavage tear search for term

A horizontal cleavage tear is a horizontal shearing of the fibres within the interior of the knee meniscus, effectively cleaving it into two parts, like a clam.

Page updated January 2024 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Housemaid's knee search for term

Housemaid's knee is an inflammation of the bursa in front of the kneecap.

HPC search for term

HPC is an abbreviation of 'Health Professions Council'.

HSC search for term

HSC is an abbreviation for haemopoietic stem cell.

HTO search for term

HTO is an abbreviation of 'high tibial osteotomy', a procedure to cut and realign the upper end of the tibia bone to improve lower limb alignment.

Page updated February 2024 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

 

Human immunodeficiency virus search for term

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the virus which causes AIDS.

Human platelet lysate search for term

Human platelet lysate is a blood extract that causes platelets to break down, releasing a large quantity of growth factors necessary for growing cells in the laboratory.

Hyaline cartilage search for term

Hyaline cartilage is the translucent covering at the end of joints where it is called articular cartilage, but it is also found in other parts of the body. 

Hyaluronic acid search for term

Hyaluronic acid is a lubricating substance commonly used for knee injections in patients with knee arthritis.

Hydrogel search for term

Hydrogels are three-dimensional (3D) cross-linked networks that swell in water and can be used as scaffold for seeding cells and growth factors into tissues such as cartilage defects.

Hyperextension search for term

Hyperextension is when the knee can bend a bit backwards.

Page updated November 2023 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Hyperextension injury search for term

A hyperextension injury is one caused by excessive hyperextension (knee bending backwards).

Hypermobility search for term

Hypermobility means that the joints are unusually mobile.

Page updated July 2023 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Hypermobility syndrome search for term

A hypermobility syndrome is a group of symptoms and signs tending to occur together and in which the joints are unusually mobile.

Hypertrophic search for term

Hypertrophic is a descriptive term for abnormal overgrowth of an organ or a tissue.

Hypertrophy search for term

Hypertrophy means excessive growth.

-