Essential knee terminology
AAHKS search for term

AAHKS is an abbreviation for the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons.

AAOS search for term

Abbreviation for 'American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons'.

Abduct search for term

To abduct is to move the limb away from the other limb, towards the side.

Abductor search for term

A muscle which, when contracted, causes the limb to abduct.

Abrasion search for term

Frictional rubbing of one thing against another.

Abrasion arthroplasty search for term

Abrasion arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to smooth off bits of damaged joint cartilage.

Acceleration injury search for term

An acceleration injury of the knee can occur when the leg is suddenly moved moved into action.

Achilles tendon search for term

The achilles tendon is the big tendon at the back of the ankle.

ACI search for term

Abbreviation for 'autologous chondrocyte implantation'.

ACL search for term

ACL is an abbreviation for 'anterior cruciate ligament'.

ACL allograft search for term

A graft from a donor to reconstruct the ACL (anterior cruciate ligament).

ACL autograft search for term

An ACL autograft is a reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using tissue from the patient and not a donor.

ACL Rehabilitation search for term

ACL Rehabilitation after ligament reconstruction takes into account the initial period when the new ligament is gaining a blood supply, then the period of improving range of motion and strength, then the final stage of return to full activities.

ACT search for term

Abbreviation for 'autologous chondrocyte transplantation'.

Actifit search for term

A polyurethane meniscal scaffold to replace damaged meniscus, and into which new tissue can grow.

Active assisted flexion search for term

Active assisted flexion is a seated exercise, where active flexion of the knee is helped further by pressure from the good leg.

Acupuncture search for term

A system, based on traditional Chinese medicine, of needling special points on the body to relieve pain or improve well-being.

Adduct search for term

Moving the limb towards the other limb, towards the middle.

Adductor search for term

A muscle which, when contracted, adducts the limb, bringing it closer to the midline.

Adhesions search for term

Adhesions are frond-like filaments which form in the knee in response to inflammation.

ADLS search for term

Abbreviation for 'Activities of Daily Living Scale'.

AIR search for term

Abbreviation for 'anterior interval release'.

AKP search for term

Abbreviation for 'anterior knee pain'.

Allodynia search for term

Exquisite over-sensitivity of the skin, where light touch is felt as pain or marked discomfort.

Allograft search for term

A graft using tissue that did not originate from the patient but from another person.

Alta search for term

Alta means 'high'.

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons search for term

A professional body to which most American Orthopaedic Surgeons would choose to belong.

American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine search for term

The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) is a national organisation of orthopaedic surgeons specialising in sports medicine, including national and international sports medicine leaders.

AMIC search for term

AMIC is an abbreviation of 'autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis'.

Amputation search for term

Amputation can be above knee, through knee or below knee.

Analgesics search for term

Analgesics are painkillers.

Anatomy search for term

Anatomy means the 'shape' of the structures in the body, and how the different parts correspond to one another.

Aneural search for term

Aneural means 'without a nerve supply'.

Aneurysm search for term

An aneurysm is a 'blow-out' of a blood vessel at a point of weakness, where it may bulge or even rupture.

Angiogram search for term

An angiogram is an X-ray investigation of the blood vessels, where a contrast agent is injected into the blood vessel and an X-ray taken.

Anterior search for term

Anterior means 'in front' or 'in front of'.

Anterior compartment search for term

The anterior compartment of the knee is the geometric space behind the kneecap, usually filled with the fat pad.

Anterior cruciate ligament search for term

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the two cruciate ligaments inside the knee. It prevents the tibia from excessive forward motion relative to the femur, and also prevents too much inwards twisting.

Anterior cruciate ligament injury search for term

Anterior cruciate ligament injury may involve a complete or partial tear within the substance tear of the ligament or an avulsion from the bone.

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction search for term

An anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an operation to replace a damaged anterior cruciate ligament with a ligament graft or a synthetic ligament.

Anterior drawer test search for term

The anterior drawer test is a test of the integrity of the anterior cruciate ligament.

Anterior horn search for term

The words 'anterior horn' refer to the anterior horn of the meniscus.

Anterior interval search for term

The 'anterior interval' is the region of the knee between the fat pad and the front of the tibia bone (anterior tibial plateau) and the patellar tendon.

Anterior interval arthrofibrosis search for term

Anterior interval arthrofibrosis is the condition of abnormal scarring in the 'anterior interval' - the space below the kneecap and behind the patellar tendon.

Anterior interval release search for term

An anterior interval release is a surgical procedure to remove scar tissue in the 'anterior interval' - a region behind the patellar tendon.

Anterior knee pain search for term

Anterior knee pain is a symptom complex, dominated by 'pain in the front of the knee', particularly on prolonged sitting and navigating stairs.

Anterolateral corner search for term

The anterolateral corner (ALC) consists of the superficial and deep aspects of the iliotibial tract (ITB) with its Kaplan fibre attachments on the distal femur, along with the Anterolateral Ligament (ALL), a capsular structure within the anterolateral capsule.

Anterolateral rotatory instability search for term

Anterolateral rotatory instability is an excessive internal rotation of the tibia on the femur when the knee is bent, leading to excessive opening of the joint at the outer (lateral ) side.

Anteversion search for term

Anteversion is a rotational deformity, eg of the long bones of the leg.

Anti-inflammatory search for term

An anti-inflammatory is a substance that decreases inflammation.

AOSSM search for term

Abbreviation for 'American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine'.

Apley's Test search for term

This is a clinical test for possible damage to the meniscus.

Aponeurosis search for term

A fibrous sheet-like expansion of a tendon.

Apoptosis search for term

Apoptosis is the death of cells which occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development.

Arcuate ligament search for term

A thickening of the posterolateral capsule at the back of the knee, that contributes to stability of the joint in this region.

Arrow search for term

A small barbed fixation device for meniscal repair.

Arthritis search for term

Arthritis is a destructive process involving the cartilagenous joint lining (the 'gristle') at the end of the bones.

Arthrofibrosis search for term

Arthrofibrosis of the knee is a complication of injury or surgery where an excessive scar tissue response leads to painful restriction of knee motion.

Arthrogram search for term

An arthrogram is an X-ray of the joint space of the knee.

Arthrolysis search for term

Surgical cutting and removing of scar tissue in a stiff joint.

Arthropathy search for term

Arthropathy means disease of a joint.

Arthroplasty search for term

An arthroplasty is a joint replacement.

Arthroscope search for term

An arthroscope is an instrument for looking into the knee.

Arthroscopic search for term

Arthroscopic means relating to keyhole surgery of a joint.

Arthroscopic abrasion search for term

Arthroscopic abrasion is the 'rubbing down' of a damaged bit of joint cartilage.

Arthroscopic debridement search for term

Debridement is a surgical 'clean up' of the joint cavity.

Arthroscopic lavage search for term

'Lavage' means 'washing'. To lavage a joint means to wash out any blood, fluid or loose debris from inside the joint space.

Arthroscopic meniscectomy search for term

'Ectomy' means 'to cut out'. 'Meniscectomy' means to cut out the meniscus.

Arthroscopic surgery search for term

Arthroscopic surgery is surgery performed via arthroscopy or keyhole surgery.

Arthroscopic trochleoplasty search for term

Arthroscopic trochleoplasty is a keyhole procedure in patients with trochlear dysplasia to improve the shape of the top of the groove where the kneecap runs.

Arthroscopy search for term

Arthroscopy means 'looking into a joint'.

Articular search for term

Articular means relating to the areas where bones move in relation to one another.

Articular cartilage search for term

Articular cartilage is the white gristle covering the ends of joint bones, where they articulate. It is also called joint cartilage or hyaline cartilage.

Articular cartilage repair search for term

Articular cartilage repair is the improvement of defects of the joint cartilage, either by surgery or biological intervention.

Artificial meniscus search for term

A manufactured device that is slipped into the gap where a meniscus has previously been removed. 

Assisted flexion search for term

A knee rehabilitation exercise.

Assisted passive extensions search for term

A knee rehabilitation exercise.

Athletic trainer search for term

An athletic trainer is a professional specialising in athletic health care.

Atrophic search for term

Atrophic means 'wasted', ie muscle wasting.

Atrophy search for term

Atrophy means tissue wasting with actual loss of tissue cells (eg muscle atrophy, limb atrophy).

Autograft search for term

An autograft is a graft taken from one part of a person and transplanted elsewhere in the same person.

Autologous search for term

Derived from the same person. A term used to describe a transplant of cells or tissues from one part of the body to another in the same person.

Autologous chondrocyte implantation search for term

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a surgical procedure involving the injection of a person's own cultured joint cartilage cells back into a prepared defect in the cartilage.

Autologous chondrocyte transplantation search for term

Same procedure as 'autologous chondrocyte implantation'.

Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis search for term

Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis is a one-stage cartilage repair technique.

Autonomic search for term

A body process that occurs outside of voluntary contol - like sweating, blushing, salivating.

Avascular search for term

If a tissue is 'avascular' it is not supplied by blood vessels.

Avascular necrosis search for term

Avascular necrosis is cell death caused by interruption of the blood supply.

Avon partial knee replacement search for term

The Avon partial knee replacement is a type of knee replacement for patellar damage.

Avulsion search for term

An avulsion is a tearing away of the normal attachment of an anatomical structure. 

Avulsion fracture search for term

Avulsion means 'tearing from its base'.

Axial plane search for term

If you decided to squeeze down a manhole in the pavement, then the pavement would be in an axial plane in relation to your body.