Anterior cruciate ligament injury may involve a complete or partial tear within the substance tear of the ligament or an avulsion from the bone.
Risk factors associated with noncontact injury of the anterior cruciate ligament: a prospective four-year evaluation of 859 West Point cadets. Uhorchak JM, Scoville CR, Williams GN, Arciero RA, St Pierre P and Taylor DC. Am J Sports Med. 2003 Nov-Dec;31(6):831-42.
Intrasubstance Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in the Pediatric Population. Aylyarov A, Tretiakov M, Walker SE, Scott CB, Hesham K and Maheshwari AV. Indian J Orthop. 2018 Sep-Oct; 52(5): 513–521.
Unique simultaneous avulsion fracture of both the proximal and distal insertion sites of the anterior cruciate ligament. Samuelsson K,Svantesson E, Senorski EH and Östman B. BMJ Case Rep. 2018; 2018: bcr2017222265.