Essential knee terminology
Tanner staging search for term

Tanner staging is a scale of alterations in sexual characteristics that help to identify comparative sexual maturity in adolescents.

Tegner score search for term

The Tegner score is a scoring system to gauge how disabled one is from one's knee problem in terms of activity.

Tendinitis search for term

Tendinitis is a description that infers inflammation of a tendon, although often the condition is more a degeneration than an inflammation.

Tendon search for term

A tendon is the white fibrous end of a muscle, which connects the muscle to the bone.

Tendonitis search for term

Tendonitis is the same as 'tendinitis', but the latter is the preferred spelling.

Tenodesis search for term

A tenodesis is a surgical procedure where the origin of a tendon is changed in order to improve joint stability.

Theraband search for term

Theraband is a trade name for wide elastic bands used for rehabilitation exercises, and development of strength.

Thermal shrinkage search for term

Thermal shrinkage is a controversial technique where a radiofrequency 'wand' is stroked over the fibres of a ligament or capsule to cause shrinkage, and consequent tightening of any laxity.

Thighbone search for term

The thighbone is the femur - the long bone going from the hip to the knee.

Thrombophlebitis search for term

Thrombophlebitis is an inflammation of the skin and underlying tissues related to a clot in a superficial vein.

Tibia search for term

The tibia is the shin bone.

Tibial inlay search for term

The tibial inlay technique is a procedure for fixation of a PCL graft onto the tibia.

Tibial plateau search for term

The tibial plateau is the flattened upper surface of the tibial bone (shinbone), where it makes contact with the rounded ends (condyles) of the femur (thighbone).

Tibial plateau fracture search for term

A tibial plateau fracture is a bone break through the flat top end of the shin bone (tibia).

Tibial spine search for term

The tibial spine is a raised area of bone in the middle of the tibial plateau, and related to the attachment of the cruciate ligaments.

Tibial torsion search for term

Tibial torsion is a condition where the tibia bone is abnormally twisted, often leading to problems with kneecap pain.

Tibial tubercle avulsion search for term

Tibial tubercle avulsion is when the attachment of the patellar tendon to the tibia is torn off, together with a fragment of bone.

Tibial tuberosity search for term

The tibial tuberosity is the bony lump on the shin below the kneecap (patella) where the patellar tendon attaches. It is also called the tibial tubercle.

Tibial tuberosity transfer search for term

Tibial tuberosity transfer (TTT) is a surgical procedure involving cutting the bony bump below the kneecap (the tibial tuberosity) and either moving it or re-angling it.

Tibial tunnel search for term

The tibial tunnel refers to the drill hole on the tibia through which a replacement anterior cruciate ligament is threaded during an ACL reconstruction.

Tibiofemoral joint search for term

The tibiofemoral joint is the junction of the tibia bone (shinbone) with the femur bone (thighbone).

Tibiofibular ligaments search for term

The tibiofibular ligaments stabilise the joint at the top of the fibula where the fibula forms a synovial joint with the tibia.

Tide mark search for term

The tide mark is a zone at the base of a layer of cartilage where it meets the bone.

Tightrope search for term

The TightRope is a device for fixing an ACL graft which offers the advantage of complete filling of short femoral tunnels.

Tip toes search for term

Tip toes is a simple knee rehabilitation exercise for the early phase of rehab to strengthen the calf muscles.

Tissue bank search for term

A tissue bank is a place where body parts are stored for later use in transplantation.

Tissue engineering search for term

Tissue engineering uses combinations of cells, biodegradeable scaffolds and other biological substances to repair or replace body parts.

Tissue graft search for term

A tissue graft is a transplant of body tissue from one area to another in the same person, or from a donor to a recipient.

TKA search for term

TKA is an abbreviation of 'total knee arthroplasty'.

TKR search for term

TKR is an abbreviation of 'total knee replacement'.

Torn meniscus search for term

A torn meniscus is a split through the fibres and matrix of the shock absorber of the knee.

Total knee arthroplasty search for term

Same as 'total knee replacement'.

Total knee replacement search for term

Replacement of the femoral and tibial surfaces of the knee joint with metal and plastic, and generally also part of the patella.

Total meniscectomy search for term

A total meniscectomy is the surgical removal of the whole of a meniscus - the shock absorber of the knee.

Tourniquet search for term

A tourniquet in knee surgery is an inflatable wrapping which goes around the upper thigh to stop blood flow during an operation.

Traction apophysitis search for term

A traction apophysitis is a condition where excessive pull on a tendon attachment creates an area of inflammation on the bony bump (apophysis) where the tendon attaches.

Transfix search for term

Transfix is a system of fixation of hamstrings tendon graft for cruciate reconstruction.

Transplant search for term

A transplant is the removal of a body part from is origin and re-growing it somewhere else in the same person or in another person.

Treadmill search for term

A treadmill is a useful item of equipment for knee rehabilitation.

Triamcinolone search for term

Triamcinolone is a steroid used to treat inflammatory disorders.

Triple varus search for term

Triple varus is a bow leg deformity where varus bowing of the knees increases on standing and also the knees tend to go backward.

Trochlea search for term

The trochlea is the groove of the femur, where the patella runs.

Trochlear dysplasia search for term

Trochear dysplasia is a condition where the  trochlear groove is abnormal, usually at its upper end, at which point the groove is abnormally flat or even heaped into a 'bump'.

Trochlear groove search for term

The trochlear groove is the concave surface where the patella (kneecap) makes contact with the femur (thighbone). Also called the 'trochlea'.

Trochlear implant search for term

A trochlear implant is a metal resurfacing of the groove of the trochlea to replace damaged joint cartilage there.

Trochleoplasty search for term

A trochleoplasty is a surgical procedure to re-shape the walls of the trochlear groove.

Trunk extension search for term

Trunk extension is a rehabilitation exercise to strengthen the lower back.

TT-PCL distance search for term

The TT-PCL distance is a measure of tibial tubercle-to-posterior cruciate ligament (TT-PCL) distance.

TT-TG Distance search for term

TT-TG distance is a measurement derived from CT or MRI scans, which gives an indication of the sideways alignment of the groove in which the kneecap slides with the attachment point of its tendon on the tibia.

TTT search for term

TTT is an abbreviation of 'tibial tuberosity transfer' which is a surgical procedure to improve kneecap stability.

Tuberculosis search for term

Tuberculosis is an infection caused by the tuberculosis bacterium. It is commonly called TB.