Essential knee terminology
MACI search for term

Abbreviation of 'matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation'.

Magnetic resonance imaging search for term

A method of imaging of the body that allows the organs to be viewed in 'slices'.

Malalignment search for term

The word 'mal' means 'bad' or 'poor'. 'Malalignment' implies that the relationship or geometry of one bone in relation to its neighbouring bone is outside of what one might consider normal.

Malleolus search for term

The malleolus is the bone of the ankle.

Maltracking search for term

Maltracking refers to a patella which is not tracking smoothly in the groove of the underlying femur during normal knee movement.

Manipulation under anaesthesia search for term

Manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) is a procedure to improve the range of movement of a stiff joint, performed while the patient is anaesthetised to relax all the muscles.

Maquet procedure search for term

The Maquet procedure is a surgical procedure to realign the patella (knee cap) to help relieve kneecap pain.

Marrow stimulation search for term

Marrow stimulation involves different techniques that allow bone marrow cells to enter a tissue defect to enhance healing.

MAT search for term

Abbreviation for Meniscal Allograft Transplantation.

Matrix search for term

A matrix is something that offers support to something more fragile, and in the knee it usually refers to the cartilage matrix.

Matrix-induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implant search for term

Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation - or MACI - is a technique of cartilage repair involving growing cells on a matrix.

MATT search for term

Abbreviation for microfragmented adipose tissue transplantation.

Mc Murray's Test search for term

The Mc Murray test is a test for integrity of the knee meniscus.

MCL search for term

MCL is an abbreviation of 'medial collateral ligament'.

Medial search for term

This is a 'position' word, to help to describe the position of body parts. It means 'on the inner aspect' - so the side of the knees which touch each other are the medial sides, while the outer sides of the knees are the lateral sides.

Medial collateral ligament search for term

The medial collateral ligament is a band of fibrous tissue supporting the medial (inner) aspect of the knee joint.

Medial compartment search for term

The part of the knee where the femur (thighbone) articulates with the tibia (shinbone) - but referring only to the inner or medial side.

Medial meniscus search for term

The medial meniscus is the shock absorber of the knee on the medial (or inner) aspect of the joint.

Medial meniscus tear search for term

A medial meniscus tear is a tear of the substance of the shock-absorbing medial meniscus.

Medial patello-femoral ligament search for term

The medial patello-femoral ligament is a small but important ligament stretching from the inner aspect of the patella (knee cap) to the femur bone.

Medial plica search for term

A medial plica is a remnant of an embryonic partition in the knee, and runs along the inner aspect of the kneecap.

Medial reefing search for term

A surgical procedure to tighten the tissues on the medial aspect of the patella.

Mediopatellar plica search for term

A mediopatellar plica is a flattened band of synovium (joint lining) inside the knee, left over from the embryological development of the knee.

Melbourne Return to Sport Score search for term

A scoring system to determine fitness for sport after ACL reconstruction.

Membrane search for term

A membrane is a thin filmy tissue enclosing an anatomical structure. It is a non-specific term.

Meniscal allograft search for term

A meniscal allograft is a transplant of a meniscus from one person to another.

Meniscal allograft transplantation search for term

Meniscal allograft transplantation is a transplant of a knee meniscus from one person to another.

Meniscal arrow search for term

Meniscal arrows are tiny bio-degradeable polymer harpoons which are used to hold together the torn fragments of a 'knee cartilage' (meniscus) tear until the fragments join together and the arrow dissolves.

Meniscal avulsion search for term

A meniscal avulsion is any condition that results in the meniscus no longer being firmly anchored to the tibia.

Meniscal cyst search for term

Meniscal cysts are little bags of joint fluid under pressure, arising from the meniscus and palpable on the side of the knee.

Meniscal degeneration search for term

Meniscal degeneration is the breakdown in the internal structure of the meniscus, the shock absorber of the knee.

Meniscal extrusion search for term

Meniscal extrusion is when the meniscus becomes loose from its moorings and slips out over the edge of the top of the tibia.

Meniscal fixation device search for term

A manufactured device for holding together the torn ends of a meniscus - part of a meniscal repair.

Meniscal reconstruction search for term

Rebuilding absent meniscal tissue, eg with scaffolds

Meniscal repair search for term

Surgically closing up a tear in the meniscus.

Meniscal repair augmentation search for term

The use use of growth factors, stem cells, platelet rich plasma (PRP), introduction of a fibrin clot, and mechanical stimulus to further stimulate healing of a repaired meniscus.

Meniscal replacement search for term

A meniscal replacement is a replacement of the part or all of the meniscus after the native tissue has been removed.

Meniscal root search for term

The meniscal root serves as the anchor point for the menisci area at each end of the meniscus where it is tethered to the underlying tibia bone via a fibrous extension which looks like a root.

Meniscal root avulsion search for term

A meniscal root avulsion is a tearing away of the meniscal root from the underlying tibial bone.

Meniscal root tear search for term

A meniscal root tear is a tear of the horn of the front or back (anterior or posterior horn) of the meniscus, at the point where the body of the meniscus becomes the root.

Meniscal scaffold search for term

A meniscal scaffold is a bio-engineered framework upon which cells can be seeded to create a replacement meniscus.

Meniscal tear search for term

A meniscal tear is a tear through the substance of the meniscus, the shock absorber of the knee.

Meniscal tears search for term

Tears in the substance of the meniscus.

Meniscal transplant search for term

Same as 'meniscal allograft'.

Meniscal transplantation search for term

A transplant of the meniscus of the knee from donor to recipient.

Meniscectomy search for term

A meniscectomy is the surgical procedure of removing a meniscus.

Menisci search for term

Plural of 'meniscus' - the shock absorber of the knee.

Menisco-femoral ligament search for term

The meniscofemoral ligament is a fibrous structure running from the posterior horn (the part at the back) of the lateral meniscus to the medial femoral condyle.

Menisco-tibial ligament search for term

The menisco-tibial ligament is a thin, fibrous layer, connecting the outer edge of each meniscus to the plateau at the top of the tibia, just under the cartilage layer.

Meniscocapsular ligament search for term

note

Meniscus search for term

The meniscus is a crescentic wedge of fibre-filled cartilage lying on the top of the tibia, between tibia and femur. Each knee has two menisci.

Meniscus cartilage search for term

The meniscus cartilage or 'semi-lunar' cartilage is the shock absorber of the knee, sandwiched between the thighbone and shinbone.

Meniscus replacement search for term

Replacement of the meniscus after the native meniscus has been removed.

Mesenchymal stem cell search for term

A mesenchymal stem cell is a multipotent progenitor cell that can be isolated and expanded from various sources and which can help to repair and rebuild tissues.

Mesenchymal stem cells search for term

Stem cells capable of differentiating into bone, cartilage, and related tissue types.

Mesenchyme search for term

Mesenchyme is a loosely organized embryonic tissue which develops into connective and skeletal tissues, including blood and lymph.

Meta-analysis search for term

The statistical procedure for combining data from multiple studies.

Metallosis search for term

A condition where the body is adversely affected by metal ions from metal abrasion from implants.

Metaphysis search for term

The part of a long bone that is the growing area, just next to the growth plate. With maturity it turns into proper bone and stops growing.

Microfracture search for term

Microfracture is a surgical procedure where a tiny 'pick' is used to spike holes through damaged joint cartilage into the bone below.

Microfragmented fat search for term

Microfragmented fat is a preparation of fat which has been aspirated from an area of the body like the front of the abdomen and passed through a system to chop it up and extract the portion that contains progenitor cells.

Mini squats search for term

Mini squats are early knee rehabilitation exercises to improve muscle strength, stimulate the VMO and achieve some range of motion of the knee.

Mini stork search for term

A knee rehabilitation exercise.

Mini trampoline search for term

A knee rehabilitation exercise.

Mini-incision knee arthroplasty search for term

Knee replacement performed with a smaller incision, and using special techniques and instruments.

Mini-incision knee replacement search for term

Same as 'mini-incision knee arthroplasty'.

Miserable malalignment search for term

This is a combination of rotational deformities that may lead to patellar (kneecap) pain and instability. Usually the femur is rotated outwards, but the tibia rotated inwards, and the kneecaps face towards one another (squinting or winking patellae).

Mobile bearing search for term

When the polyethylene tibial insert of a knee replacement is designed to facilitate movement of the insert relative to the tibial tray upon which is sits.

Mobile-bearing search for term

Knee implant where the plastic component that represents the removed meniscus is mobile.

Mosaicplasty search for term

A mosaicplasty is a surgical procedure to repair damaged joint (hyaline) cartilage.

Mouse search for term

Same as 'loose body' - a fragment of cartilage floating freely in the knee jjoint cavity.

MPFL search for term

Abbreviation of 'medial patello-femoral ligament'.

MRI search for term

Abbreviation of 'magnetic resonance imaging'.

MRSS search for term

Abbreviation for 'Melbourne Return to Sport Score'.

MSC search for term

MSC is an abbreviation of 'mesenchymal stem cell' - a cell capable of developing into a precursor of bone, cartilage or related tissue.

MUA search for term

Abbreviation of 'Manipulation under anaesthesia'.

Mulberry knot search for term

This is a kind of knot used by surgeons when suturing (sewing) a torn meniscus. The knot resembles a tiny mulberry on the outsde of the joint.

Muscle stimulation search for term

Muscle stimulation is an electric therapeutic modality that physiotherapists can use to help strengthen the muscles around the knee.

Myositis ossificans search for term

A condition where bone forms inside muscle.

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