Essential knee terminology
MACI search for term

MACI is an abbreviation of 'matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation'.

Magnetic resonance imaging search for term

Magnetic resonance imaging is a method of imaging of the body that allows the organs to be viewed in 'slices'.

Malalignment search for term

The word 'mal' means 'bad' or 'poor'. 'Malalignment' implies that the relationship or geometry of one bone in relation to its neighbouring bone is outside of what one might consider normal.

Malleolus search for term

The malleolus is the protuberance of bone on either side of the ankle.

Maltracking search for term

Maltracking refers to a patella which is not tracking smoothly in the groove of the underlying femur during normal knee movement.

Manipulation under anaesthesia search for term

Manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) is a procedure to improve the range of movement of a stiff joint, performed while the patient is anaesthetised to relax all the muscles.

Maquet procedure search for term

The Maquet procedure is a surgical procedure to realign the patella (knee cap) to help relieve kneecap pain.

Marfan syndrome search for term

Marfan syndrome is a set of inherited signs and symptoms, also associated with hypermobility of the joints, including the knee.

Marrow stimulation search for term

Marrow stimulation involves different techniques that allow bone marrow cells to enter a joint cartilage defect to enhance healing there.

MAT search for term

MAT is an abbreviation for Meniscal Allograft Transplantation.

Matrix search for term

A matrix is something that offers support to something more fragile, and in the knee it usually refers to the cartilage matrix.

Matrix-induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implant search for term

Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation - or MACI - is a technique of cartilage repair involving growing cells on a matrix.

MATT search for term

MATT is an abbreviation for microfragmented adipose tissue transplantation.

MCL search for term

MCL is an abbreviation of 'medial collateral ligament'.

McMurray Test search for term

The McMurray test is a test for the integrity of the knee meniscus.

Medial search for term

Medial is a 'position' word, meaning 'on the inner aspect'.

Medial collateral ligament search for term

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a band of fibrous tissue supporting the medial (inner) aspect of the knee joint.

Medial compartment search for term

The medial compartment is that part of the knee where the femur articulates with the tibia - but referring only to the inner or medial side.

Medial meniscus search for term

The medial meniscus is the shock absorber of the knee on the medial (or inner) aspect of the joint between the femur and tibia bones.

Medial meniscus tear search for term

A medial meniscus tear is a tear of the substance of the shock-absorbing medial meniscus.

Medial patello-femoral ligament search for term

The medial patello-femoral ligament is a small but important ligament stretching from the inner aspect of the patella (knee cap) to the femur bone.

Medial plica search for term

A medial plica is a remnant of an embryonic partition in the knee, and runs along the inner aspect of the kneecap.

Medial reefing search for term

Medial reefing is a surgical procedure to tighten the tissues on the medial aspect of the patella.

Mediopatellar plica search for term

A mediopatellar plica is a flattened band of synovium (joint lining) inside the knee, left over from the embryological development of the knee.

Meniscal allograft search for term

A meniscal allograft is a transplant of a meniscus from one person to another.

Meniscal allograft transplantation search for term

Meniscal allograft transplantation is a transplant of a knee meniscus from one person to another.

Meniscal arrow search for term

Meniscal arrows are tiny bio-degradeable polymer harpoons which are used to hold together the torn fragments of a 'knee cartilage' (meniscus) tear until the fragments join together and the arrow dissolves.

Meniscal avulsion search for term

A meniscal avulsion is a traumatic incident that results in the knee meniscus - or a portion of it - tearing away from its previously firm anchorage to the tibia bone.

Meniscal cyst search for term

A meniscal cyst is a fluid-filled tender lump at the joint line of the knee, arising from the meniscus shock absorber.

Meniscal degeneration search for term

Meniscal degeneration is the breakdown in the internal structure of the meniscus, the shock absorber of the knee.

Meniscal extrusion search for term

Meniscal extrusion is when the meniscus becomes loose from its moorings and slips out over the edge of the top of the tibia.

Meniscal fixation device search for term

A meniscal fixation device is a manufactured device for holding together the torn ends of a meniscus - part of a meniscal repair.

Meniscal reconstruction search for term

Meniscal reconstruction is rebuilding absent meniscal tissue, eg with a graft or scaffolds.

Meniscal repair search for term

Meniscal repair encompasses various techniques of surgically closing up a tear in the meniscus.

Meniscal repair augmentation search for term

Meniscal repair augmentation is the use use of growth factors, stem cells, platelet rich plasma (PRP), introduction of a fibrin clot, and mechanical stimulus to further stimulate healing of a repaired meniscus.

Meniscal replacement search for term

A meniscal replacement is a replacement of the part or all of the meniscus after the native tissue has been removed.

Meniscal root search for term

The meniscal root serves as the anchor point for the menisci area at each end of the meniscus where it is tethered to the underlying tibia bone via a fibrous extension which looks like a root.

Meniscal root avulsion search for term

A meniscal root avulsion is a tearing away of the meniscal root from the underlying tibial bone.

Meniscal root tear search for term

A meniscal root tear is a tear of the knee meniscus close to the root region where the meniscus is anchored to the underlying bone.

Meniscal scaffold search for term

A meniscal scaffold is a bio-engineered framework upon which cells can be seeded to create a replacement meniscus.

Meniscal tear search for term

A meniscal tear is a tear through the substance of the meniscus, the shock absorber of the knee.

Meniscal transplant search for term

A meniscal transplant is the transplant of a donor meniscus into the patient when their own meniscus is damaged beyond repair.

Meniscectomy search for term

A meniscectomy is the surgical procedure of removing a meniscus.

Menisci search for term

Menisci is the plural of the word 'meniscus' - the shock absorber of the knee.

Meniscocapsular junction search for term

The meniscocapsular junction is the region where the knee meniscus attaches to the capsule that surrounds the knee joint.

Meniscofemoral ligament search for term

The meniscofemoral ligament is a fibrous structure running from the posterior horn (the part at the back) of the lateral meniscus splitting to pass around the posterior cruciate ligament to reach the medial femoral condyle.

Meniscofibular ligament search for term

The meniscofibular ligament attaches the back of the lateral meniscus to the fibular bone.

Meniscotibial ligament search for term

The meniscotibial ligament is a thin, fibrous layer, connecting the outer edge of each meniscus to the plateau at the top of the tibia.

Meniscus search for term

The meniscus is a crescentic wedge of fibre-filled cartilage, seated in the gap between the two long bones of the knee (tibia and femur). Each knee has two menisci - medial meniscus (inner aspect) and lateral meniscus (outer aspect).

Meniscus cartilage search for term

The meniscus cartilage or 'semi-lunar' cartilage is the shock absorber of the knee, sandwiched between the thighbone and shinbone.

Meniscus replacement search for term

Meniscus replacement refers to transplants or implants after the native meniscus has been removed.

Merchant view search for term

The Merchant view is a special X-ray view that shows well the position of the patella in the underlying groove of the trochlea.

Mesenchymal stem cell search for term

A mesenchymal stem cell is a multipotent progenitor cell that can be isolated and expanded from various sources and which can help to repair and rebuild tissues.

Mesenchyme search for term

Mesenchyme is a loosely organized embryonic tissue which develops into connective and skeletal tissues, including blood and lymph.

Meta-analysis search for term

Meta-analysis is the statistical procedure for combining data from multiple studies.

Metallosis search for term

Metallosis is a condition where the body is adversely affected by metal ions from metal abrasion of implants.

Metaphysis search for term

The metaphysis is the part of any long bone that is the growing area, just next to the growth plate. With maturity it turns into proper bone and the limb stops growing.

Microfracture search for term

Microfracture is a surgical procedure where a tiny 'pick' is used to spike holes through damaged joint cartilage into the bone below with a view to stimulating bleeding and formation of new fibrocartilage.

Microfragmented adipose tissue transplantation search for term

Microfragmented adipose tissue transplantation (MATT) is a cartilage repair technique.

Microfragmented fat search for term

Microfragmented fat is a preparation of fat which has been aspirated from an area of the body like the front of the abdomen and passed through a system to chop it up and extract the portion that contains progenitor cells.

Mini squats search for term

Mini squats are early knee rehabilitation exercises to improve muscle strength, stimulate the VMO and achieve some range of motion of the knee.

Mini stork search for term

A mini stork is a knee rehabilitation exercise.

Mini trampoline search for term

The mini trampoline is useful for knee rehabilitation exercises.

Miserable malalignment search for term

Miserable malalignment is a specific combination of rotational deformities in the leg that may lead to patellar (kneecap) pain and instability.

Mobile-bearing search for term

A mobile-bearing knee replacement or arthroplasty is a knee implant where the plastic component (that replaces the meniscus) is mobile.

Mosaicplasty search for term

A mosaicplasty is a surgical procedure to repair damaged joint cartilage by harvesting small cores of cartilage and bone from a non-weightbearing part of the joint and packing them into a mosaic to repair a larger weightbearing defect in the cartilage.

Mouse search for term

A knee mouse is the same thing as a 'loose body' - a fragment of cartilage floating freely in the knee joint cavity.

MPFL search for term

MPFL is an abbreviation of 'medial patello-femoral ligament'.

MRI search for term

MRI is an abbreviation of 'magnetic resonance imaging'.

MSC search for term

MSC is an abbreviation of 'mesenchymal stem cell' - a cell capable of developing into a precursor of bone, cartilage or related tissue.

MUA search for term

MUA is an abbreviation of 'Manipulation under anaesthesia'.

Mucoid degeneration search for term

Mucoid degeneration is a deterioration of tendons or ligaments, where parts of the normal fibrous connective tissue breaks down into a jelly-like material.

Mulberry knot search for term

This is a kind of knot used by surgeons when suturing (sewing) a torn meniscus. The knot resembles a tiny mulberry on the surface of the meniscus.

Muscle stimulation search for term

Muscle stimulation is an electric therapeutic modality that physiotherapists can use to help strengthen the muscles around the knee.

Myositis ossificans search for term

Myositis ossificans is a condition where bone forms inside muscle.