The word 'mal' means 'bad' or 'poor'. 'Malalignment' implies that the relationship or geometry of one bone in relation to its neighbouring bone is outside of what one might consider normal.


What are the common kneecap problems?

A quick overview of kneecap problems to help you with your research.

Important patellofemoral concepts

Part 2 of a course on Patellofemoral Pain by Dr Ronald Grelsamer of Mount Sinai Hospital in New York.

The patella is ideally suited for imaging, and when it comes to detecting malalignment the doctor will usually start with plain x-rays.

Here the standard of care would be to obtain four X-rays. These would include the so-called AP (front-to-back), the side view (otherwise known as the...

Part of a course by knee surgeon, Dr Ronald Grelsamer.

This is the editor's interpretation of a paper published in 2002, in which the authors stress that no 'corrective' surgery for patellofemoral malalignment should be undertaken on the basis of the imaging findings alone.