HO is an abbreviation of 'heterotopic ossification', where bone forms where it should not form, usually in the soft tissues.


An 'interpretation' of a medical article published in the medical journals in 2011, discussing what it is that triggers soft tissues around a knee replacement to transform into bony tissue.

An 'interpretation' of a 2009 paper looking at various interventions to prevent bony change in the soft tissues around injuries of joint replacements.



Heterotopic Ossification: A Comprehensive Review. Meyers C, Lisiecki J, Miller S, Levin A, Fayad L, Ding C, Sono T, McCarthy E, Levi B and James AW. JBMR Plus. 2019 Apr; 3(4): e10172.

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