The marrow-stimulation technique of microfracture employs a small pick to create tiny holes through the hard base layer of the damaged area, allowing blood and the patient's own stem cells to enter the area and start the healing process.
Autologous cartilage implantation (ACI) is a 2-stage cartilage repair procedure where cartilage cells are harvested and multiplied in a laboratory before being returned to the patient and injected behind a membrane.
Mosaicplasty is a 1-stage technique of osteochondral implantation, where larger defects are packed with small plugs of bone and cartilage taken from a less essential part of the joint.
Techniques of cartilage repair
Cartilage repair is an umbrella term for a number of techniques all aimed at helping the joint cartilage to repair a defect. This may involve puncturing the base plate under the joint cartilage to allow bleeding and inflow of healing cells (microfracture), transplant of a core of bone and cartilage into a defect (osteochondral graft), injection of cultured stem cells behind a membrane (ACI) and various other techniques.
Cartilage repair in the degenerative ageing knee. Brittberg M, Gomoll AH, Canseco JA, Farr J, Lind M and Hui J. Acta Orthop. 2016 Dec; 87(Suppl 363): 26–38.
Evolution of Autologous Chondrocyte Repair and Comparison to Other Cartilage Repair Techniques. Dewan AK, Gibson MA, Elisseeff JH, and Trice ME. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014: 272481.
- Abrasion arthroplasty
- Marrow stimulation
- Osteochondral graft
- Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI)
- Matrix-induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implant (MACI)
- Cartilage autograft implantation system (CAIS)
- Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC)