Essential knee terminology
RA search for term

RA is an abbreviation of 'rheumatoid arthritis'.

Radial tear search for term

A radial tear of the meniscus cuts across the main fibres of the meniscus, from the inner rim to the outer rim.

Page updated February 2024 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Ramp lesion search for term

A ramp lesion is a longitudinal vertical or oblique tear of the periphery of the affecting posterior horn of the medial meniscus where the meniscus attaches to the capsule.

Page updated October 2023 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Range of motion search for term

Range of motion of the knee is the range in degrees through which the knee can bend and straighten, and which is normally -5° to +143° in women and -6° to +140° in men.

Page updated October 2023 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Realignment osteotomy search for term

A realignment osteotomy realigns the long bones where they are abnormally bowed or knocked to improve the distribution of forces through the joint.

Recipient search for term

A 'recipient' receives a transplant from a 'donor', or a 'recipient' area receives a transplant from a 'donor' area.

Rectus femoris search for term

The rectus femoris muscle is one of the four heads of the quadriceps muscle.

Recurvatum search for term

Recurvatum means that the knee inclines backwards more than 5 degrees when weight is taken on the leg.

Page updated January 2024 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Reefing search for term

Reefing is surgical tightening of the retinacular tissues on the medial aspect of the patella.

Referred pain search for term

Referred pain is pain that is experienced in one part of the body but which is really arising from a different part.

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy search for term

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a disorder characterised by distressing pain, out of proportion to the condition giving rise to it. Its modern name is Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

Regenerative medicine search for term

Regenerative medicine involves non-surgical tissue augmentation via injection of cells and growth factors.

Regenerative orthopaedics search for term

Regenerative orthopaedics is the discipline within orthopaedics of encouraging bones and supporting tissues to regenerate rather than using foreign materials to replace them.

Regenerative Surgery search for term

Regenerative surgery includes those surgical interventions that help tissues to repair via biological interventions such as stem cell injections.

Rehabilitation after total knee replacement search for term

Rehabilitation after total knee replacement involves restoring strength and range of motion in a limb that has been compromised and poorly mobile for some time, usually in a patient in the older age group.

Reiter's Syndrome search for term

Reiter's syndrome is a reactive arthritis that triggers in association with infection of the eye (conjunctivitis) and urinary tract (urethritis).

Rejection search for term

Rejection is the term is used in relation to transplant surgery when the body attacks and damages the transplant.

Remodelling search for term

Remodelling is the process where a bone or tissue re-shapes itself after a fracture, transplant or other insult.

Resisted extensions search for term

Resisted extensions are knee rehabilitation exercises to improve quads strength.

Resolvins search for term

Resolvins are a group of molecules that facilitate chronically inflamed tissues to eventually return to normal. 

Resurfacing search for term

Resurfacing is replacing part of the cartilage of a joint with an implant.

Revascularisation search for term

Revascularisation is the process whereby new blood vessels grow into a transplanted tissue such as a cruciate ligament graft.

Reverse pivot shift search for term

The reverse pivot shift test assesses posterolateral rotation of the knee, and indirectly the integrity of the structures of the posterolateral corner, including the posterior cruciate ligament.

Revision search for term

Revision is the term is used when a surgical procedure has to be re-done because of complications.

Revision arthroplasty search for term

Revision arthroplasty is a procedure to revise or replace a previous knee replacement.

Rheumatoid arthritis search for term

Rheumatoid arthritis is an immune disorder, where the body attacks its own tissues causing joint swelling, inflammation and destruction largely affecting the small joints (eg base of fingers).

Rheumatology search for term

Rheumatology is a specialism in medicine, and is the study of a group of related disorders characterised by multi-joint arthritis which appear to be triggered by the body's own immune system.

RICE search for term

R.I.C.E. is the mnemonic for remembering the rehabilitation regime of Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation

Page updated September 2023 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Robot-assisted knee arthroplasty search for term

Robot-assisted knee arthroplasty is a knee replacement procedure facilitated by computerised robots.

Robotic knee surgery search for term

Robotic knee surgery uses computer-assisted robotic systems to aid the surgeon in performing knee replacements.

ROM search for term

ROM is an abbreviation of 'range of motion'.

Page updated January 2024 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Rosenberg view search for term

The Rosenberg view is a weight-bearing X-ray view with the knees bent at 45 degrees, and which is sensitive in terms of looking for early osteoarthritis of the knee and joint space narrowing.

Page updated November 2023 by Dr Sheila Strover (Clinical Editor)

Rotational osteotomy search for term

Rotational osteotomy is a surgical procedure to cut a twisted bone and rotate the whole to a more functional position.

Rowing machine search for term

Rehabilitation equipment that resembles a rowing boat.

RSD search for term

RSD is an abbreviation of 'reflex sympathetic dystrophy'.

Runner's knee search for term

Runner's knee is pain often experienced in runners where they are bothered by pain at the front or on the outer side of the knee.