Essential knee terminology
RA search for term

RA is an abbreviation of 'rheumatoid arthritis'.

Radial tear search for term

A radial tear of the meniscus cuts across the main fibres of the meniscus, from the inner rim to the outer rim.

Ramp lesion search for term

A ramp lesion is a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus at the meniscocapsular junction.

Range of motion search for term

Range of motion (ROM) of the knee is the range in degrees through which the knee can bend and straighten (flex and extend).

Realignment osteotomy search for term

A realignment osteotomy realigns the long bones where they are abnormally bowed or knocked to improve the distribution of forces through the joint.

Recipient search for term

A 'recipient' receives a transplant from a 'donor', or a 'recipient' area receives a transplant from a 'donor' area.

Rectus femoris search for term

The rectus femoris muscle is one of the four heads of the quadriceps muscle.

Recurvatum search for term

Recurvatum means that the knee inclines backwards when weight is taken on the leg.

Reefing search for term

Reefing is surgical tightening of the retinacular tissues on the medial aspect of the patella.

Referred pain search for term

Referred pain is pain that is experienced in one part of the body but which is really arising from a different part.

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy search for term

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a disorder characterised by distressing pain, out of proportion to the condition giving rise to it. Its modern name is Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

Regenerative medicine search for term

Regenerative medicine involves non-surgical tissue augmentation via injection of cells and growth factors.

Regenerative orthopaedics search for term

Regenerative orthopaedics implies that damaged tissues within orthopaedics are encouraged to regenerate rather than using foreign materials to replace them.

Regenerative Surgery search for term

Regenerative surgery includes those  surgical interventions that help tissues to repair via biological means.

Rehabilitation search for term

Rehabilitation is the programme of exercises and stretches undertaken in order to return the knee to as full a function as possible.

Reiter's Syndrome search for term

Reiter's syndrome is a reactive arthritis that triggers in association with infection of the eye (conjunctivitis) and urinary tract (urethritis).

Rejection search for term

Rejection is the term is used in relation to transplant surgery when the body attacks and damages the transplant.

Remodelling search for term

Remodelling is the process where a bone or tissue re-shapes itself after a fracture, transplant or other insult.

Resisted extensions search for term

Resisted extensions are knee rehabilitation exercises to improve quads strength.

Resurfacing search for term

Resurfacing is replacing a part of the joint with a metal or metal/plastic implant.

Revascularisation search for term

Revascularisation is the process whereby new blood vessels grow into a transplanted tissue such as a cruciate ligament graft.

Reverse pivot shift search for term

The reverse pivot shift test assesses posterolateral rotation of the knee, and indirectly the integrity of the structures of the posterolateral corner, including the posterior cruciate ligament.

Revision search for term

Revision is the term is used when a surgical procedure has to be re-done because of complications.

Revision arthroplasty search for term

Revision arthroplasty is a procedure to revise or replace a previous knee replacement.

Rheumatoid arthritis search for term

Rheumatoid arthritis is an immune disorder, where the body attacks its own tissues causing joint swelling, inflammation and destruction largely affecting the small joints (eg base of fingers).

Rheumatology search for term

Rheumatology is a specialism in medicine, and is the study of a group of related disorders characterised by multi-joint arthritis which appear to be triggered by the body's own immune system.

RICE search for term

R.I.C.E. is the mnemonic for remembering the rehabilitation regime of Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation

Robot-assisted knee arthroplasty search for term

Robot-assisted knee arthroplasty is a knee replacement procedure facilitated by computerised robots.

Robotic knee surgery search for term

Robotic knee surgery uses computer-assisted robotic systems to aid the surgeon in performing knee replacements.

ROM search for term

ROM is an abbreviation of 'range of motion'.

Rosenberg view search for term

The Rosenberg view is an X-ray view which is sensitive in terms of looking for osteoarthritis of the tibio-femoral area.

Rotational osteotomy search for term

Rotational osteotomy is a surgical procedure to cut a twisted bone and re-align it to a more functional position.

Rowing machine search for term

Rehabilitation equipment that resembles a rowing boat.

RSD search for term

RSD is an abbreviation of 'reflex sympathetic dystrophy'.

Runner's knee search for term

Runner's knee is pain often experienced in runners where they are bothered by pain at the front or on the outer side of the knee.