A growth factor is a naturally occurring protein capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.


Growth factors are regulators

Growth factors determine the fate of cells as they differentiate from being progenitors into their mature differentiated state. Examples of growth factors relevant to orthopaedics include TGF-beta (transforming growth factor beta), CTGF (connective tissue growth factor)  and FGF (fibroblast growth factor).


A discussion of newer concepts in fat-derived stem cell work.

The Editor's interpretation of a 2011 book chapter published in the book 'Modern Arthroscopy'.

An 'interpretation' of an article from 2004 discussing the concepts of re-growing a meniscus from scaffolds and stem cells.



Engineering growth factors for regenerative medicine applications. Mitchell AC, Briquez PS, Hubbell JA and Cochran JR. Acta Biomater. 2016 Jan; 30: 1–12.

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in haemophilic arthropathy and arthrofibrosis: a histological analysis. Jiang J, Leong NL, Khalique U, Phan TM, Lyons KM, Luck JV Jr. Haemophilia. 2016 Nov;22(6):e527-e536. doi: 10.1111/hae.13049. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

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