An anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an operation to replace a damaged anterior cruciate ligament with a ligament graft or a synthetic ligament.

ACL reconstruction with Graftlink

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the 'all-inside' method

Guide for all-inside ACL reconstruction

Guide for Drilling the femoral tunnel for an all-inside ACL reconstruction.


Graft options for ACL reconstruction

There are two common options for the graft material:

  • Autograft - using the patient's own tissues for the reconstruction
  • Allograft - using donor tissues rather than the patient's own tissue

Artificial ligaments and xenograft (animal material) remain options but are seldom considered.


Technical considerations

There are different technical procedures available to the surgeon, but the tendency is towards all-inside single-bundle reconstruction.


ACL reconstruction

Summary of an article published in the medical literature.

Editor's interpretation of a paper published in the medical literature.

The cruciate ligaments

Illustrated overview of the position and function of the cruciate ligaments.

A publication highlighting the factors affecting injury of the ACL and ACL rehabilitation.

This is a clinical text written by experts for experts, and has over 500 pages of well-indexed detail and is richly illustrated in colour. It is not a beginner's book.

A discussion based upon an interesting thread in the KNEEguru Forum (bulletin board).

A book review.




Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: principles of treatment. Paschos NK and Howell SM. EFORT Open Rev. 2016 Nov; 1(11): 398–408.

Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: What's In and What's Out? Raines BT, Naclerio E and Sherman SL. Indian J Orthop. 2017 Sep-Oct; 51(5): 563–575.

A Review on Biomechanics of Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Materials for Reconstruction. Marieswaran M, Jain I, Garg B, Sharma V and Kalyanasundaram D. Appl Bionics Biomech. 2018; 2018: 4657824.

Should return to sport be delayed until two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? Biological and functional considerations Nagelli CV and Hewett TE. Sports Med. 2017 Feb; 47(2): 221–232.

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