A Baker's cyst is a tense fluid-filled swelling at the back of the knee which is secondary to increased pressure of joint fluid inside the knee.

Baker's cyst forming a painful lump at the back of the knee baker's cyst or popliteal cyst

Bakerzyste2 MRT sag

A Baker's cyst can appear suddenly and be experienced as a painful lump on the inner aspect of the crease at the back of the knee on the inner aspect. The cyst may become tense and rupture, with the fluid tracking into the back of the calf, mimicking a deep vein thrombosis. Fluid in the Baker's cyst shows up in white in this side-view MRI scan towards the right of the image. You can see its relationship to the gastrocnemius muscle which is just below it.

 

mechanism of baker's cyst

What causes a Baker's cyst?

Increased fluid pressure inside the knee from some damage or irritation there pushes against a weak area in the bursa (pocket) between the gastrocnemius and semimembranosus tendons of the muscles at the back of the knee. The wall of the bursa can break down, allowing a valve-like flap that allows joint fluid to enter but not escape.

 

How is a Baker's Cyst treated?

The surgeon usually initially focuses attention on the underlying cause of the cyst, checking for arthritis or a torn meniscus or any other problem inside the joint. Resolution of the underlying cause may lead to decreased fluid pressure inside the knee, and the cyst may shrink. If this fails, some surgeons will aspirate the fluid with a syringe, although this may give only temporary relief. Arthroscopic surgery to remove the flap at the entrance to the cyst is becoming the recommended practice.

 

What happens if a Baker's cyst pops?

Rupture of a Baker's cyst may allow the fluid to track into the calf, where it can cause pain and swelling, and be confused with a deep vein thrombosis.

Synonyms: 
popliteal cyst
baker cyst
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Short article about the anatomical factors that allow a Baker's cyst to develop.

An explanation by Dr Lars Blond as to why he uses keyhole surgery to remove a Baker's cyst.

Enclosing the articulating part of the knee joint is a water-tight capsule made of a strong fibrous material lined on the inside with a thin layer of secretory cells.

A short explanation of the very common problem of a painful lump at the back of the knee due to a Baker's cyst.

Pain in the back of the knee

An overview with illustrations.

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CLINICAL PUBLICATIONS

Baker's Cyst. Demange MK., Rev Bras Ortop. 2011 Nov-Dec; 46(6): 630–633.

Popliteal cysts: a current review. Herman AM, Marzo JM. Orthopedics. 2014 Aug;37(8):e678-84

Baker's cyst simulating deep vein thrombosis. Chaudhuri R, Salari R. Clin Radiol. 1990 Jun;41(6):400-4.

Baker's Cyst Filled with Hematoma at the Lower Calf Yoo M-J, Yoo J-S, Jang H-S, Hwang C-H. Knee Surg Relat Res. 2014 Dec; 26(4): 253–256.


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eBook about pain in the back of the knee

eBook - Pain in the back of the knee