The alignment relationship of femur to tibia when weight-bearing.

mechanical axis
Long-leg weightbearing X-rays allowing measurement of the distance between the mechanical axis (yellow) and the anatomical axis (blue). Both lines should pass through the centre of the knee joint.


Alignment problems

Alignment problems may lead to bowing (varus deformity) or knock-knees (valgus deformity).

limb alignment

Structural and functional consequences of meniscectomy

Although a patient may feel relief after a meniscectomy, there is invariably an effect on the joint which in the longer term may lead to joint surface damage and structural changes.

Discussing rotational problems with the log bones of the leg and how they can affect the kneecap.



Reliability of lower limb alignment measures using an established landmark-based method with a customized computer software program. Sled EA, Sheehy LM, Felson DT, Costigan PA and Cooke TDV. Rheumatol Int. 2011 Jan; 31(1): 71–77.

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