Cytokines are small body proteins that are important in signalling cells around them to maintain tissues in a healthy state.


Cytokines as regulators

Cytokines help to regulate the body's immune response to infection, and play a key role in regulating inflammation and trauma. There are two types of cytokines - pro-inflammatory cytokines stimulate  inflammation, while anti-inflammatory cytokines inhibit inflammation and enhance healing. In orthopaedics cytokines are particularly important when considering joint cartilage.


A discussion of newer concepts in fat-derived stem cell work.

A comparison of different types of knee injection.



The role of cytokines in cartilage matrix degeneration in osteoarthritis.. Goldring SR and Goldring MB. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004 Oct;(427 Suppl):S27-36.

Inflammation in osteoarthritis. Goldring MB and Otero M. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2011 Sep; 23(5): 471–478.

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