An anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an operation to replace a damaged anterior cruciate ligament with a ligament graft or a synthetic ligament.

ACL reconstruction with Graftlink

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the 'all-inside' method

Guide for all-inside ACL reconstruction

Guide for Drilling the femoral tunnel for an all-inside ACL reconstruction.


Graft options for ACL reconstruction

There are two common options for the graft material:

  • Autograft - using the patient's own tissues for the reconstruction
  • Allograft - using donor tissues rather than the patient's own tissue

Artificial ligaments and xenograft (animal material) remain options but are seldom considered.


Technical considerations

There are different technical procedures available to the surgeon, but the tendency is towards all-inside single-bundle reconstruction.


ACL reconstruction

Short commentary about how long to wait before reconstructing a torn cruciate ligament.

An 'interpretation' of a medical publication from 2005 where the authors offer surgeons a list of practical advice about arthrofibrosis of the knee.

An 'interpretation' of a 2004 medical publication discussing the possibility of genetic screening to identify those patients likely to develop aggressive arthrofibrosis after cruciate ligament reconstruction.

An 'interpretation'of an article from 2000 describing the possible causes of loss of full extension in the knee after cruciate ligament reconstruction, how it is managed, and highlighting the importance of rehabilitation in preventing loss of full range of movement in the first place.

An 'interpretation' of a paper published in 2000 which discusses the critical importance of competent rehabilitation in preventing arthrofibrotic scarring inside the knee after cruciate ligament reconstruction.




Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: principles of treatment. Paschos NK and Howell SM. EFORT Open Rev. 2016 Nov; 1(11): 398–408.

Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: What's In and What's Out? Raines BT, Naclerio E and Sherman SL. Indian J Orthop. 2017 Sep-Oct; 51(5): 563–575.

A Review on Biomechanics of Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Materials for Reconstruction. Marieswaran M, Jain I, Garg B, Sharma V and Kalyanasundaram D. Appl Bionics Biomech. 2018; 2018: 4657824.

Should return to sport be delayed until two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? Biological and functional considerations Nagelli CV and Hewett TE. Sports Med. 2017 Feb; 47(2): 221–232.

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