An anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an operation to replace a damaged anterior cruciate ligament with a ligament graft or a synthetic ligament.

ACL reconstruction with Graftlink

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the 'all-inside' method

Guide for all-inside ACL reconstruction

Guide for Drilling the femoral tunnel for an all-inside ACL reconstruction.


Graft options for ACL reconstruction

There are two common options for the graft material:

  • Autograft - using the patient's own tissues for the reconstruction
  • Allograft - using donor tissues rather than the patient's own tissue

Artificial ligaments and xenograft (animal material) remain options but are seldom considered.


Technical considerations

There are different technical procedures available to the surgeon, but the tendency is towards all-inside single-bundle reconstruction.


ACL reconstruction

This e-book is from from two knee experts, written in a style for everyone to be able to understand the key issues and well illustrated in full colour.

Who's Who in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery?

This section lists knee surgeons who the KNEEguru website has identified as having expertise or a special interest in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee.

Dr (Mr) Pal Trikha explains the issues of single- versus double-bundle ACL reconstruction

There are important issues relating to the timing of cruciate ligament surgery.

Professor Adrian Wilson explains the history behind the concept of 'anatomical' cruciate ligament reconstruction

An 'interpretation' of a 2011 publishing discussing how important it is to have a flexible approach when dealing with internal scarring after cruciate ligament surgery.




Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: principles of treatment. Paschos NK and Howell SM. EFORT Open Rev. 2016 Nov; 1(11): 398–408.

Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: What's In and What's Out? Raines BT, Naclerio E and Sherman SL. Indian J Orthop. 2017 Sep-Oct; 51(5): 563–575.

A Review on Biomechanics of Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Materials for Reconstruction. Marieswaran M, Jain I, Garg B, Sharma V and Kalyanasundaram D. Appl Bionics Biomech. 2018; 2018: 4657824.

Should return to sport be delayed until two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? Biological and functional considerations Nagelli CV and Hewett TE. Sports Med. 2017 Feb; 47(2): 221–232.

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