This publication by Joanna Kvist, Juri Kartus, Jon Karlsson and Magnus Forssblad summarises the position of the information gleaned over a number of years from the 23,744 patients who were entered into the Swedish National register for ACL procedures up until December 2012.

The study includes data from both the surgeons and from the patients. The female/male ratio was 42/58, with mean ages 28/26 respectively.

The researchers concluded from this data that soccer was the most common cause of ACL injury in both females and males. The best results are for primary ACL reconstruction on one side, and revision surgery has a generally poorer outcome than the initial procedure.

Smoking tends to adversely affect outcomes.


Joanna Kvist, Juri Kartus, Jon Karlsson and Magnus Forssblad, Results From the Swedish National Anterior Cruciate Ligament Register, 2014, Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopy And Related, (30), 7, 803-810. Copyright: WB Saunders Postprint available at: Linköping University Electronic Press

Online summary.