This is a combination of rotational deformities that may lead to patellar (kneecap) pain and instability. Usually the femur is rotated outwards, but the tibia rotated inwards, and the kneecaps face towards one another (squinting or winking patellae).

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Rotational Deformity & Miserable malalignment

In a proper rotation deformity the most common situation is that you come off your motorbike, you fracture your femur, and it unites malrotated.

Then you need to have the femur derotated back to a normal position to either settle the problem down, perhaps in association with a var-ising or valg-ising...

Conditions interfering with patellofemoral mechanics

Part 4a of a course on Patellofemoral Pain by Dr Ronald Grelsamer of Mount Sinai Hospital in New York.

Patellar malalignment

Patellar malalignment is a general term pertaining to any abnormality of the position or tracking of the patella.

Malalignment is a very important diagnosis to make because malalignment of the kneecap and the surrounding tissues has the...

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