The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the two cruciate ligaments inside the knee. It prevents the tibia (shinbone) from excessive forward motion relative to the femur (thighbone), and also prevents too much inwards twisting.

The other is the 'posterior' cruciate ligament (PCL).


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The Sherman System for classifying ACL tears

ACL injuries are usefully classified using the Sherman system.

The value of the classification system is that it helps to identify those patients who might benefit from an ACL repair rather than a reconstruction.


The ideal patient for a repair has a Sherman Type I injury with a femoral detachment and a good quality ACL remnant, where the


Joint laxity and ACL tears

This study indicates that athletes at risk of ACL injury should be assessed via a simple scoring system for increased joint laxity. Training programmes should be specially focused on protecting such individuals from ACL injury.

Chronic anterior...

ACL Injury in Female Athletes

ACL reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed procedures in orthopedic practice. Young athletes sustain ACL injuries requiring reconstruction at alarming rates.

The ratio of ACL rupture in female athletes is three times more likely than in their male counterparts (Sutton, 2013).

Additionally, females postoperatively are 15 times more likely to rupture the reconstructed knee within the first year, as...


Knee bones from front (bent knee)

Brief introduction to the bony anatomy of the knee.

Cruciate Ligaments

An overview of the many issues facing a patient with a cruciate ligament tear.

Results From the Swedish National Anterior Cruciate Ligament Register

This publication by Joanna Kvist, Juri Kartus, Jon Karlsson and Magnus Forssblad summarises the position of the information gleaned over a number of years from the 23,744 patients who were entered into the Swedish National register for ACL procedures up until December 2012.

The study includes data from both the surgeons and from the patients. The female/male ratio was 42/58,...